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【词汇习得】在阅读文章里积累词汇

2016/09/13 15:00  名师优课
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前面几篇文章讲了如何正确的认识背单词这件事。总结起来就是一句话:要在阅读文章和听力素材里面去积累词汇;这篇文章里面给大家提供一个从阅读文章里面积累句型和词汇的范例,以便供大家参考。

以下面这一个段落的文章为例:

It should be obvious that cetaceans—whales, porpoises, and dolphins—are mammals. They breathe through lungs, not through gills, and give birth to live young. Their streamlined bodies, the absence of hind legs, and the presence of a fluke and blowhole cannot disguise their affinities with land dwelling mammals. However, unlike the cases of sea otters and pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses, whose limbs are functional both on land and at sea), it is not easy to envision what the first whales looked like. Extinct but already fully marine cetaceans are known from the fossil record. How was the gap between a walking mammal and a swimming whale bridged? Missing until recently were fossils clearly intermediate, or transitional, between land mammals and cetaceans.

这是一个完整的段落。我们从文章里面积累词汇,首先可以以句子为单位,整段共有7个句子。

首先,我们可以从句型入手。句型是英语学习中很重要的一个积累方面。很多时候我们看不到一句话根本原因其实不在单词,而在我们不熟悉这样的句型。我们积累词汇,可以先看看段落内的句子句型,这一步比较轻松,也可以帮助我们先理解句意和段落大意。例如:

第一句:It should be obvious that…;

第三句:A,B and C cannot disguise their affinities with… (三个短语并列做主语);

第六句:How was the gap between A and B bridged?

第七句:Missing until recently were fossils… (倒装语序: Fossils were missing until recently…)

其次,我们从认知词汇和习得词汇的角度来区分我们许要在这段文字里面掌握的词汇。那么这七个句子里面只需要做到认识的“认知词汇”是:第一句:cetaceans,porpoises,dolphins;第二句:gills;第三句:hind legs;第四句:sea otters,pinnipeds,seals, sea lions, walruses;

而习得词汇的数量就比较多,这里因人而异,只要是不认识的,都很重要。我例举每个句子里比较重要的单词:第一句:obvious,whales,mammals;第二句:breathe,lungs,give birth;第三句:absence,presence,disguise,affinities,dwelling;第四句:limbs,functional,envision;第五句: extinct,marine, fossil record;第六句: gap, bridged;第七句: intermediate, transitional;

上面段落例句的习得词汇,总共21个。这些单词会是我们理解这段文字的关键,也是我们在其他文章里面会反复遇到的高频词汇和常用词汇。如果我们能像这样,习惯性的将这些单词与这段文字的内容一起来学习,理解和记忆,就能掌握词汇的掌握放在语境里面。这样就能很好的避免单词背了在阅读的时候,看着眼熟就是想不起来意思的尴尬,也不会反复的把英语学习的时间浪费在背单词上。

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