The following appeared in a memo from the marketing director of Bargain Brand Cereals:
One year ago we introduced our first product, Bargain Brand Breakfast cereal. Our very low prices quickly drew many customers away from the top-selling cereal companies. Although the companies producing the top brands have since tried to compete with us by lowering their prices, and although several plans to introduce their own budget brands have been executed, not once have we needed to raise our prices to continue making a profit. Given our success selling cereal, Bargain Brand should now expand its business and begin marketing other low-priced food products as quickly as possible.
In this memo the marketing director of Bargain Brand Cereal claims that the company has a particular knack for selling low-priced food and will continue to make a profit should it follow the recommendation to expand from selling only cereal to other low-priced food. To support the recommendation, the memo points out that Bargain Brand is still earning a profit from its cereal sales, despite the fact that major competitors have lowered their cereal prices, and offered their own versions of bargain-priced cereal brands. The recommendation to expand is based on evidence that is not too convincing. Let us review the argument.
本段采用了标准的Argument开头段结构，即：C – E - F的开头结构，首句概括原文的C(Conclusion)。接下来的一句话概括了原文为了支持他的结论所引用的E(Evidence)。最后尾句中给出开头段到正文段的过渡句，指出原文在逻辑上存在F(Flaw)。
本段作为Argument开头段，具体功能就在发起攻击。首先，概括原文的结论：Bargain Brand Cereal(简称BB)公司的经理认为公司在销售low-priced food上有优势;同时公司可以继续盈利如果把产品从Cereal推广到其他low-priced food。接下来分别列举了原文为了支持这个结论引用的证据：尽管其他公司麦片产品不断降价并推出低价麦片品牌，BB在销售麦片上持续盈利。论据的归纳用于铺垫出正文段的具体攻击。最后点出原文存在逻辑错误，引出后面的分析。
First of all, while Bargain Brand is still earning a profit, a crucial point here is determining the extent to which Bargain Brand profits have diminished since other the introduction of alternative low-priced cereals hit the market. It is entirely possible that Bargain Brand has been less profitable since its competitors lowered their cereal prices, and that in a little more time, Bargain Brand will sink into the red.
Secondly, the memo states that several major competitors plan to offer their own special bargain brands to compete directly with Bargain Brand. Yet the memo fails to account for this fact m concluding that Bargain Brand will continue to be profitable. In all likelihood, after the introduction of competing brands Bargain Brand's profits will diminish even further. Without providing evidence that this will not occur, the director cannot convincingly conclude that Bargain Brand will continue to profit from its cereal sales.
本段作为正文第二段，攻击文章犯的主要逻辑错误：错误因果(时间类)。原文中虽然说BB公司在其他品牌的冲击下盈利，但作者认为没有证据表明盈利会持续。接着，作者提出一种可能性，公司利润会diminish even further。
Thirdly, based on the fact that Bargain Brand continues to profit from cereal sales, the memo concludes that Bargain Brand should expand its product line to include other low-priced food products. No evidence is provided whereby it is demonstrated that Bargain Brand is likely to be profitable in other markets. Perhaps the profitability of the cereal is attributable so a factor that connote be replicated in the production of other low-food products.
In conclusion, based on the evidence provided, the recommendation is ridiculous. To strengthen the argument, the director must demonstrate that Bargain Brand will continue to profit from cereal sales long after its major competitors introduce their own bargain brands. To better assess the director's conclusion that Bargain Brand should expand its line of bargain-priced foods, an audience would need more information about why the cereal line is so successful in the first place and if this contributing factor can be reproduced in the production of other low-priced foods.
本段采用了标准的Argument结尾段结构，即：C – S的结尾结构，首先再次重申原文的站不住脚的Conclusion，接下来给出给合理建议Suggestion。
本段作为Argument结尾段，具体功能就总结归纳+建议措施，首先再次重申BB manager的建议不合理，接下来给出是文章更有说服力的合理化建议：一是必须给出BB在其他竞争者退出新产品的情况下continue to profit的证据，二是提出BB公司麦片产品畅销的因素以及这些因素能否被应用到其他产品中。结尾段的建议非常规整的隐射前面的错误，前后呼应，文章有力结尾，浑然一体。