小站整理2021-04-28 11:55:28




The following appeared in a memorandum from the general manager of KNOW radio station:

"KNOW should shift its programming from rock-and-roll music to a continuous news format. There are a number of reasons why: the number of older people in our listening area has increased dramatically, while the total number of our listeners has recently declined, music stores in our area report decreased sales of recorded music and continuous news stations in neighboring cities have been very successful. Furthermore, a survey taken just before the recent election shows that locals are interested in becoming better informed about politics."


This memo recommends that KNOW radio station shift from rock-and-roll (R&R) music programming to all-news programming based on a number of reasons. As the manager indicates, the total number of KNOW listeners are decreasing in number while the number of older people in KNOW's listening area is increasing. The manager also points out that area sales of music recordings are in decline. Furthermore, the manager cites a recent survey that indicates local residents are interested in becoming better informed about politics. The manager also points out that a radio station in a similar situation shifted their programming and met with great success. While the recommendation seems to be well supported, there are too many unproven assumptions here.


本段采用了标准的Argument开头段结构,即:C – E - F的开头结构,首句概括原文的C(Conclusion)。接下来的一句话概括了原文为了支持他的结论所引用的E(Evidence)。最后尾句中给出开头段到正文段的过渡句,指出原文在逻辑上存在F(Flaw)。



First, the manager assumes that the decline in the number of KNOW listeners is attributable to the station's current format. It is possible that decline is due to KNOW's specific mix of R&R music, or to transmission problems at the station. Without ruling out these and other possible reasons for the decline in total listener number, the manager should not offer a recommendation for change.




本段作为正文第一段,攻击文章犯的主要逻辑错误:因果类错误。作者认为原文把deline in number of readers的原因归结为station’s format,而作者认为还可能有其他现象导致听众数量下降。例如KNOW电台mix of R&R music(摇滚乐搭配),以及transmission problems(信号问题)。在无法忽略他因前提下结论是不正确的。

Secondly, in his argument, the manager assumes that older people favor all-news programming—this is an unsubstantiated view. Perhaps as KNOW's regular audience ages, it will prefer a mix of R&R and news programming rather than one format or the other. In short, the mere fact that the number of older people in KNOW's listening area is increasing suggests nothing about KNOW's best programming strategy.




本段作为正文第二段,攻击文章犯的主要逻辑错误:因果类错误(缺乏证据)。作者人为原文中“老年听众喜欢收听新闻节目”的说法没有根据。作者提出了另外的可能性,常规听众可能希望听mix of R&R and news programming而不是单一节目。

Thirdly, a decrease in local music recording sales is scant evidence that KNOW should eschew music in favor of an all-news format. Although overall music sales are declining, perhaps sales of R&R recordings are actually increasing while sales of all other types of music recordings are decreasing. For that matter, perhaps people who buy music recordings are generally not the same people who listen to music on the radio. Either scenario, if true, would seriously undermine the manager's recommendation.




本段作为正文第三段,攻击文章犯的主要逻辑错误:错误因果(缺乏证据)。作者认为唱片销量下降并不能说明电台应该把摇滚乐改成新闻。作者提出可能出现的相反情况,唱片销量总数下降而摇滚唱片销量上升,或者买唱片的人和听电台的人not the same people。

Fourth, it is not sound reasoning to conclude from one survey suggesting that local residents are becoming better informed about politics that they are becoming less interested in listening to R&R music. Neither is it sensible to conclude that they are interested in news at all. After all, news embraces many topics in addition to politics. Besides that fact, there is no reason why people interested in politics cannot also be interested in listening to R&R music. Moreover, a single survey taken just prior to an election is insufficient evidence that the trend in interest would continue.



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